Parsa National Park

Name: Parsa National Park (IUCN Category: II)

Established: 1984

Area (sq. km): 627.39

Buffer Zone ( 285.30 (IUCN Category: VI)


Parsa National Park, situated in the south-central lowland Terai of Nepal, spans an area of 627.39 This pristine sub-tropical jungle holds historical significance as a former vacation site for the Rana Rulers. In 1984, it earned the status of a wildlife reserve, aimed at preserving the habitat for the wild Asian elephant and various other fauna. Adjacent to Chitwan National Park in the west, it attained National Park status in 2017.

Additional Information


The region’s soil primarily comprises gravel and conglomerates, rendering it susceptible to erosion. The landscape showcases rugged hills with numerous gullies and dry streambeds. The porous foothills allow underground water flow, surfacing approximately 15 km from the hills’ base. The Churia hills, ranging from 750m to 950m, run east to west.


Winter (October-December) provides pleasant temperatures with clear skies, although nighttime temperatures can drop to 0°C. Spring (January-March) witnesses rising temperatures and scarce water. Summer (April-June) brings hot and humid days, with temperatures reaching up to 40°C. Monsoon (July-September) introduces cooling rains.

Flora & Fauna:

Forests predominantly consist of tropical and subtropical species, with Sal forests comprising about 90 percent of the reserve’s vegetation. Riverine forests along riverbanks feature species like Khair and Silk cotton trees. Higher altitudes in the northeast host Sal and Pine forests, while pine dominates forests on the southern slope of the Siwalik hills.

The reserve houses endangered species, including the wild Asian elephant, Royal Bengal tiger, Sloth bear, and Leopard. Various other wildlife, such as Blue bull, Sambar, Chital, Hog deer, Barding deer, Langur, Rhesus macaques, striped hyena, Jungle cat, and Palm civet, contribute to the reserve’s biodiversity.

With over 500 bird species, including the White-breasted kingfisher, Paradise flycatcher, Large racquet-tailed drongo, and the endangered Giant hornbill, the park is a haven for bird enthusiasts. The reserve is also known for reptiles, hosting diverse snake species like the common Cobra, Common and banded Karit, Python, and King cobra.


The park headquarters features a small guesthouse with four rooms and a teahouse offering tea, snacks, and Nepali food. Hetauda and Birgunj are approximately an hour away by bus. A first-aid kit, especially for intestinal problems, is recommended. Near the headquarters, a machan (view tower) provides excellent bird, deer, and leopard sightings, with a chance to spot wild elephants.

Kailas Bhata, atop a hill with religious significance, houses two small temples (Dugdeswor Mahadev) dedicated to the Hindu gods Shiva and Parbati. An elephant camp near Amlekhgunj in Bara district offers jungle rides, arranged from the park headquarters, providing a close view of wildlife.

How to get there:

The park is easily accessible, with the Kathmandu-Hetauda-Birgunj highway passing by the entrance gate. Buses from Kathmandu take six to seven hours, while a flight to Simara followed by a 15-minute bus ride leads to the park headquarters.

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